Why LED lights can change color: Color can be changed by changing the current. Light-emitting diodes can be easily chemically modified to adjust the band structure and band gap of materials to achieve red, yellow, green, blue, and orange multi-color light emission. For example, an LED that is red at low currents can turn orange, yellow, and finally green as the current increases. The core of the light-emitting diode is a wafer composed of a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor. There is a transition layer between n-type semiconductors, called a pn junction. In the PN junction of some semiconductor materials, when the injected minority carriers are combined with the majority carriers, the excess energy is released in the form of light, thereby directly converting electrical energy into light energy. A reverse voltage is applied to the PN junction, and it is difficult to inject minority carriers, so it does not emit light. This type of diode made using the principle of injection electroluminescence is called a light-emitting diode, and is commonly called an LED. When it is in the forward working state (that is, plus voltage is applied to both ends), when the current flows from the LED anode to the cathode, the semiconductor crystal emits light of different colors from ultraviolet to infrared, and the intensity of the light is related to the current.
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